Brew Ha Ha

It’s funny how you wait so long for an event to happen and when it does…it just slips away from your fingers. That’s how fast Brew Ha Ha went. Jason, me, and our friend Kendra got to Silverado around 11:30am. Silverado is very well hidden among the arid wildlife of Orange County.  It’s a single lane road so there was a bit of traffic getting there. And it’s near Irvine Lake so ladies I suggest wearing flats or shoes cause the women who were wearing heels and wedges did not look like they were having a good time walking around the grass.

I was surprised that they opened the doors earlier than noon. Tickets at the door did sell out so try and buy them online if you can. And I didn’t realize how big the venue would be. It’s a HUGE lawn area with numerous booths dispersed.
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There’s also a separate area where the food trucks line up. We got some samples of Slater’s 50/50 which were $2 for a quarter burger. Such a good deal AND it goes to a good cause to help Orange County’s firefighters! Some other samples we tried were mac ‘n cheese, pulled-pork sliders, and some free red bull!
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If you take a stroll around you’ll find a veranda area with unlimited soda machines and a bridge over a small pond. Quite beautiful actually.
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There’s also some giant jenga to entertain some passerby’s as well as some lawn games and mini put-put.
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 Also bring a camera cause there’s plenty of photo opportunities around…
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The bands were so phenomenol! After quite a few of tastings Kendra and I were tired so it was nice to sit down and relax to some awesome music. The Creepers played some badass cover songs and were quite entertaining.
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After that the great Greg Koch blessed us with his presence. He gave a passionate speech regarding our transition from an organic food/farming society to a society focused on cheap-low cost ingredients and its correlation to increased healthcare spending. Greg then discussed the future of craft breweries and their ever increasing presence in the food industry. And ‘lo and behold he then picked up a guitar…
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Remember that popular 90s ska band Reel Big Fish? Well they took the stage after Greg and they OWNED it! It was a trip down memory lane listening to Sell Out. The crowd definitely seemed to enjoy the show as some mad dance skills went down.
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After that, we walked around trying some few tasters. The breweries were practically giving them away now since no opened containers can be in the car and why waste good beer when there’s a crowd of beer enthusiasts nearby? It was soon 4:00 and time to go home. Oh and there is a taxi pick up spot available.
After the event we realized that there really wasn’t a difference between a VIP ticket and a general ticket. I had tons of taster tickets leftover at the end of the day. Plus they were just giving away tasters for free. Everyone had access to the talks too since their given on a public stage in the middle of the lawn area. VIPs can enter the event an hour early but some of the tents weren’t even set up or ready till 1pm. So basically there was no difference, something good to know for the future.
All in all, I’ll definitely be back. In fact the same company is hosting a Brew Ho Ho in December at Anaheim. I may check that out…oh who am i kidding? I’ll be there!
Tips for Brew Ha Ha
  • Save some extra cash and purchase the general admission ticket. There’s no big difference between VIP and the general admission ticket
  • Buy the tickets online because tickets at the door sell out FAST
  • Wear comfortable shoes, hats, sunscreen, and sunglasses. The sun is your nemesis for today.
  • Drink water throughout the day. There’s plenty of water stations around plus you get a bottle of water at the entrance. Remember the importance of hydration.
  • Bring cash! It’s easier for the food trucks and vendors.
  • Explore the venue and see what’s around. You’ll find some cool lawn games and soda machines.
  • Make a pretzel necklace! Many people were wearing them and said that it helped clean their palates between beer tastings.
  • Pace yourself! You don’t want to be throwing up in a porta potty.
  • If you’re going with a big group bring walkie-talkies! Cell phone reception is nonexistent there.

4 Days Till Brew Ha Ha

The 4th Annual Brew Ha Ha Beer Festival is this Saturday, Sept. 7th at Silverado, CA. I have heard such outrageous stories from friends so I CANNOT wait to finally go! Also, some pretty cool speakers are going to be there. Let’s see…there’s Ed Heethuis from Ritual Brewing Co., David Walker from Firestone Walker Brewing, Dr. Bill Sysak from Stone Brewing Co., and oh yea Greg Koch (insert fangirl scream).

There’s going to be over 70 breweries there! I recognized some of my favorites like Belching Beaver, Cismontane, and GreenFlash. But there’s quite a few awaiting me. Over 175 craft beers too. SCORE! Jason and I decided to splurge and get the VIP tickets for $60 presale. They’re $70 at the door. The ticket grants you early entrance (at noon rather than 1pm), a commemorative glass, 20 tasters, and a seat at the Beer Appreciation Seminar by the speakers mentioned above. I will happily bestow $60 for this experience.

Oh man. I haven’t even mentioned food yet. Get ready for Slater’s 50/50, The Burnt Truck, Devilicious, 77 Pizza, Taco Asylum, Brewcakes, The Slidebar, The Viking Truck, Garlic Escapes, Dos Chinos, Rancho A Go Go BBQ, and Sausage King.

For those of you interested, you can still purchase tickets here.

For those of you who still aren’t sure, check out their website here

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Here’s an interesting fact for you, courtesy of urban dictionary

Brew Ha Ha:

It all starts off with a long period of drinking between a decent sized group of male friends; usually during sunny weather. Due to drunkenness heat and vast amounts of consumed brews, behaviors eventually tend to intensify to the point where a brawl occurs. In the morning when the gentlemen awaken from their slumbers they notice their wounds and and say HAHA.

Celebrating IPA Day with Stone’s R&R

First of all, Happy IPA Day fellow brewsters and beer guzzlers! Now a year ago you probably wouldn’t have heard me say that. My palate just started warming up to the heavy rich character of an IPA. Let’s just say that once I found an IPA that I liked, the more I found myself attracted to the rest of them. One of which that stood out to me was a coconut IPA that I luckily came across with during an American Homebrewers Association rally at Stone Brewing. Jason & I voted it as our first choice and apparently others did too because it took 1st place in the competition AND would be featured as one of Stone’s new beer.

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Now since it’s IPA Day it’s only natural for Stone Brewing Company, known for their delicious IPAs, to release this coconut beer the day before. It is another one of my favorite Stone Collaboration beers (the other one is the wOOtstout).  2013 AHA winners Robert Masterson and Ryan Reschan, Rip Current, and Stone Brewing crafted a recipe that yielded the same coconut flavor but with one alteration- using six varieties of hops.

I haven’t yet had the chance to drive down to Escondido but I’ll head over to Bevmo or Total Wine in search of this R&R Coconut IPA. If it’s anything like that coconut IPA I had on that rally (which I’m sure it will be, if not better) then I know it will satiate my need for a vibrant, tropical flavored beer.

~Jason & Nyssa

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Cap Management

I’ve made my fair share of melomels and have noticed that some of my batches have a strong fruity taste while others are lacking in that department. At first I did not know why since I strictly adhered to the recipes. It wasn’t until I did my research and learned that I NEEDED to punch down the “cap”-the layer of fruit in the primary of a melomel. Below the cap, your must’s temperature can range between 104-106 degrees F. This level of temperature kills the yeast, interrupting the fermentation process. Flavors will be lacking and instead you will get off flavors with your batch. Punching down the cap also allows the fruit to thoroughly mix within the must and thus leading to the vibrant colors, fruity aromas, and fruity flavors that characterize a melomel. The yeast will also be more evenly distributed since the highest concentration of yeast is directly below the cap.

There is also a CO2 buildup directly below the cap, minimizing the amount of oxygen that the yeast is receiving. This deprivation of oxygen (which is an important yeast nutrient) will weaken the yeast’s cell membrane. The yeast will therefore not be performing at its highest capability and fermentation will be stressed. There is also a sanitary reason to punching down the cap layer. Microorganisms can live on top of the dry cap and completely spoil your mead.

You want to use a metal masher rather than a wooden one since bacteria can live in the porous structure of wood. It is recommended to punch the cap about 3 times a day during active fermentation. I personally punch the cap less frequently just cause I’m worried about introducing bacteria everytime I open the carboy. During the process the temperature of your must should be about 60-65 degrees F. Also don’t forget to sanitize the instrument you are using to punch down the cap.

References:

Cap Management in Melomels

Making Melomels

The Benefits of Punching Down the Cap

What Is Cap?

The Magnificent Life of Yeast

There are 4 growth phases in a yeast’s life cycle. There is no specific time period for each phase, rather each phase may overlap one another.

1. Lag Phase

In order for any of us to get things done we must have energy. And where do we get that energy from? Food. Maslow did know a thing or two about human needs. Well the same thing goes for yeast. In order for yeast to begin working, it must have energy. And yeast obtains their energy through their stored glycogen that is broken down into glucose. Now that the yeast has energy, the cell can begin reproduction.  If the yeast has a low glycogen storage then the fermentation process will be longer. Glycogen serves as the yeast’s primary source of energy until its membrane becomes permeable to the sugars in the wort. During this stage the pH will be low because there is low level of oxygen and phosphate. The oxygen levels will be lowered since  the yeast utilizes oxygen to make sterols and unsaturated fatty acids (both are important growth factors). These growth factors support the yeast’s cell membrane and its ability to adapt to its environment.

2. Growth Phase

Because the yeast prepared itself  during the lag phase, it can finally begin rapidly multiplying its cells and begin consuming the sugars in the wort. The yeast reproduces asexually by forming a daughter cell that is the exact genetic copy of itself. The yeast uses the oxygen in the wort to oxidize acidic compounds. The wort will have a foamy layer due to the expulsion of carbon dioxide. The pH will also drop due to oxidization.

3. Fermentation Phase

This phase occurs once all the oxygen in the wort has been depleted. Carbon dioxide, ethanol, and beer flavors are produced during this stage. The yeast is in suspension and will remain in suspension for 3-7 days. The carbon dioxide bubbles you see are oxygen escaping the wort.

4. Sedimentation Phase

Yeast in this phase flocculates (clumps together) and settles to the bottom of the fermenter when fermentation ends. Since there is no more sugar and nitrogen in the wort, the yeast will begin to produce glycogen to prepare itself for “hibernation” as the glycogen will serve as its energy source in the lag phase.

Resources:

  1. The Life Cycle of Yeast
  2. What Is Yeast?
  3. Yeast Growth and the Cell Cycle
  4. Yeast Life Cycle

Homebrewing Tips

Collection of tips I found helpful and would like to share with other homebrewers…

  • Take notes on everything! Nothing sucks more than brewing a really delicious batch of beer only to find out you lost the recipe. As you brew more batches you will find yourself tweaking recipes and wanting to reproduce the same quality of beer for the next batch. So take detailed notes. Click here for a list of brewing notes.
  • Form a strong relationship with other homebrewers and your homebrew supply shop. They know what they’re doing so they can quickly troubleshoot any problems you may run into.
  • Keep your leftover grains in ziploc bags. I like to take the stickers off the bags that contains the name of the grain, then I write down the date the bag was opened.

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  • Use painters tape as a label for your fermenters. I include the name and style of beer/mead, date brewed, SG, and OG. Leave some extra room so you can add the dates you rerack.

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  • Lucky for us we have a very deep kitchen sink. So I make sure to clean it very well and rinse the grit off. I then plug the sink with a stopper and then run the water. Add the StarSan and BAM you’ve got a bath of sanitizer, perfect to leave your airlocks, stoppers, funnel, and other brewing equipment in.
  • Close your windows to minimize dust and airborne contaminates from getting into your sanitized beer equipment and homebrews.
  • When using PBW to clean your carboy or keg, don’t forget to dissolve it first in warm water before dumping it into your carboy/keg. Otherwise it will leave powder behind.
  • When using wooden brewing utensils look for cracks and nicks on it. Bacteria can easily grow there and it will be difficult to thoroughly sanitize it. It will be easier to just purchase a new one.
  • Fill a spray bottle with Star San diluted with water. Keep it nearby while brewing so you can quickly sanitize anything that has been compromised. Also it is great in sanitizing tap lines.

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  • If there is leftover residue in your carboy and you don’t have a carboy brush you can place 1/2 a handful of rice or more in it with some water. Shake vigorously and the scum should come off.
  • If you find yourself not having time to clean your fermenter or carboy immediately, fill it with water immediately so that the residue doesn’t dry thus making cleaning easier.
  • Try to use a larger boiling kettle, at least 6-7.5 gallon pot so you can boil a 5 gallon batch of beer for the full 60-90 min boil and thus producing better beer. Plus the extra space may be needed in case of boil-overs.
  • If your mead recipe calls for tons of fruits use a plastic fermenter bucket than a glass carboy because it’s easier to get the fruit out from a wide mouth fermenter than from a narrow mouth in a glass carboy.
  • Purchase a steel spoon for stirring. It is strong enough to stir through thick, heavy mashes. Plastic spoons are delicate and can melt while wooden spoons can easily become nicked and scratched, thus creating a habitat for microorganisms.
  • Don’t use thermometers with mercury. It can break and is very poisonous.
  • Invest in a propane burner. Boils much faster and you have greater control over your boiling temperature.
  • Use an egg timer or set an alarm on your cell to indicate when your 60 min boil is over.
  • For porters, fruit, wheat, and stouts use blow off tubes than airlocks. These style of beers tend to have a lot of blow off and airlocks can get easily clogged. Try to use a blow off tube of at least 1″ diameter so you can easily clean it out.
  • Refrigerate your hops as soon as you buy them or better yet freeze or vacuum pack them. An ABU of 5% will go down to 4% after 6 months of storage
  • Get feedback from as many people as you can. Enter competitions to get opinions from certified beer judges. Host beer tastings to see what the general consensus is amongst friends and families.
  • Use fresh, high quality ingredients. For extracts check the use-by date.  Use yeast, hops, crushed grains, and dry and liquid malts soon after buying them because they will oxidize over time.
  • Buy or make your own immersion wort cooler. You want to cool your beer quickly so that the majority of proteins and tannins fall out and will reduce the risk for infection.

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  • Boil your wort for 60 minutes to sterilize it, vaporize undesirable compounds, release bittering oils from hops, and coagulate tannins and proteins from grains to fall out during cooling. If you are making a lighter style of beer boil for 90 minutes.
  • Make your own evaporated cooling method for your fermenters during the hot months of summer. This past summer we wet a couple of shirts and then put them over the fermenters. We placed the fermenters in a long rubbermaid container and filled that container with water. We then placed a fan in front of it.

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  • Check your OG (Original Gravity) before starting fermentation. OG is the same thing as SG (Starting Gravity). FG (Final Gravity) and TG (Terminal Gravity) are also the same thing.  To estimate alcohol content, subtract FG from OG and multiply by 0.129, which is the ABV (alcohol by volume). If you don’t multiply, you get the ABW (alcohol by weight).
  • When using a new hydrometer calibrate it by measuring distilled water (reading should be 1.000). Remember to spin the hydrometer before taking a reading to knock off clinging bubbles that cause your hydrometer to float too high.
  • Use vodka in your airlocks to kill microbes that try to contaminate your beer.

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  • After you just transferred your beer into the fermenter, place the fermenter in a black garbage bag and leave it open around your fermenter. Keep the spray bottle of Star San next to it. Also have a second sanitized blow off tube or airlock close by. Better to be prepared for blow-off before it happens.
  • Add fruit to your secondary rather than primary because during primary fermentation the CO2 leaving the airlock will allow the flavor and aroma to escape as well.

References:

5 Homebrewing Tips to Avoid the Dreaded Bottle Bomb

7 Tips for Using Your Homebrew Kit

10 Top Tips for Homebrewing Beer

30 Tips to Improve Homebrewing

BrewingKB

Expanding your Homebrewery: Tips from the Pros

How to Host a Mead Tasting Party

FOR A MEAD/WINE TASTING

First you must choose the type of tasting you would like to host.

  • Vertical Tasting: Tasting one specific type of wine/mead from the same producer but different years. Ex: Tasting Chaucer’s Traditional   Mead from 2007, 2009, and 2011.
  • Horizontal Tasting: Select one type of wine/mead from a specific year but different producers. Ex: Select a 2006 Cabernet from 4 different wineries.
  • Old World vs New World Tasting: Select one type of wine/mead from the Old World (Europe-France, Italy, Germany, Spain, Austria, and Portugal) vs the New World (North and South America, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa)
  • Wine and Cheese Tasting (Click here for a specific pairing guide between wine and cheese)
  • Wine and Chocolate Tasting (Click here for a specific pairing guide for wine and chocolate)
  • “Priceless” Tasting: Withhold the price to prevent taste bias
  • “Price-Point” Tasting: Used to establish a baseline price to compare ‘apples to apples’ in a given flight of drinks
  • Big Eight Wine Tasting: Offer the world’s most popular and influential wines in the market. The Red Wines include Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir, Merlot, and Syrah/Shiraz. The White Wines include Chardonnay, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot Gris/Pinot Grigio.
  • Blind Tasting: Number the specific bottles and allow guests to write their own notes about each drink based on their senses.

Determine your guest list and send out invitations at least 2 weeks in advance. I prefer to use evites since they’re free. Also when deciding a number of guests remember that one 750ml bottle can serve up to 12 people if using the 2oz tasting rule.

Pick a place where there is enough table room and chairs to comfortably seat your guests and the flights of wines/meads/beer. Decide whether you want the tasters to bring their own glasses or not. Don’t rinse the glass between servings because a single drop of water can dilute your wine/mead.

Design a Tasting Card that specifies the type of drink, the year, and brief description. Allow room for guests to record the drink’s distinct appearance, aroma, flavor, etc. Make sure you bring a sufficient amount of pens/pencils.

Print out a small handout on how to properly taste wine/mead/beer.

Provide relaxing, smooth music to create a blissful ambiance.

Some general rules for tastings:

  • Whites before Reds
  • Dry before Sweet
  • Older before Younger

Provide plain bread and water for guests to cleanse their palates between tastings. Hold off eating till later because spicy aromatic foods can influence the tasting.

 

References:

How to Host a Wine Tasting Party

How to Host a Wine Tasting

Liquor and Wine Outlet How to Host a Wine Tasting

Real Simple How to Host a Wine Tasting 

The Nest How to Host a Wine Tasting Party

Getting Started: Brewing Equipment Needed

  • Stainless Steel Stockpot: Try to get one that can carry 16-20 quarts (15-19L). It is also advised to purchase one with sturdy handles that are attached to the actual pot itself.

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  • Thermometer: Try to get a glass thermometer because they float upright in your must so you can read it easily. Just be careful when losing it because if it breaks while in your must then the whole batch is ruined. A good idea is to get a thermometer that ranges from 50 degrees F to 200 degrees F in increments of 10 degrees F or less.

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  • Hydrometer: This instruments reads how much sugar is dissolved in the solution using specific gravity. “Pure water at a temperature of 68 degrees F (20 degrees C) has a specific gravity of 1.000. Adding sugar makes the density of the solution-and therefore the specific gravity-rise. When this occurs, the hydrometer floats higher in the solution changing where its scale will be read” (Schramm 28).

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  • Plastic fermenter: The plastic fermentation buckets ranges from 5-8 gallons. There should be a hole on the top of the lid for the stopper and airlock. The reason plastic is desired because plastic fermenters won’t break or melt when the hot honey is added. However, if the interior is scratched then there is a potential for bacterial growth.

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  • Glass carboy: The carboys come in 5-10 gallon glass bottles that do not scratch easily but if dropped, can break and ruin your batch as well as harm you. This is why some people use rubber carboy handles to ease the lifting and transferring process. Plastic carboys like Better Bottles are made from clear, stain resistant, non-porous PET plastic that’s impermeable to oxygen. Just be careful when cleaning to prevent scratching.

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  • Airlocks: These locks provide the barrier that prevents contaminating bacteria or wild yeast from entering the fermenter and mead while allowing carbon dioxide to escape from the actively fermenting mead. The two most common are the Bubbler Air Lock and the Three-Piece Airlock. The Three-Piece Airlock is generally used for primary fermentation because if there is an overactive batch that foams all the way to the top of the fermenter to the airlock, it is easier to clean the separate pieces. In addition the Three-Piece is resistant to “suck-back” where negative pressure in the fermenter causes the third piece to suck down on the gas tube. With the Bubbler, the “suck-back” will draw all the airlock fluid into the wort. The Bubbler is used in the secondary fermentation because it allows a more accurate visualization of carbon dioxide escaping. If you don’t feel like purchasing an airlock or if you’re from the ghetto, insert a hose into the rubber stopper in your fermentation bucket and place the other end into a sanitized jaw filled with fluid (this method is most helpful when you are making a large batch or if your batch has vigorous fermentation). Another tip is to purchase an airlock brush to clean the fermentation residue out of the airlocks.

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  • Drilled Rubber Stoppers: This is used to adjoin your fermenter with the airlock. Stoppers No. 6 and 7 work well with 5 gallon carboys. If you are using carboys of a different size consult with the homebrew shop about the stopper size you need.

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  • Siphon Hose: You need clear, food-grade vinyl tubing with a 5/16 inch and 3/8 inch inner diameter. It is best to get one that is six feet long so there is leeway when re-racking. It is good to replace the siphon every 6 months to ensure sanitation.

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  • Racking Cane: This is a “clear, hard plastic food-grade tubing bent at an angle near one end. The siphon hose fits snugly over the end and the cane is lowered into the mead to be racked, to provide you control over siphoning. This allows you to avoid the sediment pack or fruit residue…” (Schramm 29).
  • Sanitizer: I prefer Star San for the sanitizer. You can buy it in any hombrew shop or website. I tend to buy the 32 oz because I know I will always need this. If you have a deep kitchen sink (preferably two), clean one sink thoroughly (and I mean scrub all that food residue) and then use the drain stopper. Add the Star San and fill that sink with water. You then have a basin designated to sanitizing your equipment.

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  • Cleaner: After re-racking your mead, there will be a thick layer of sediment in your carboy. PBW (Powdered Brewery Wash) is an alkali cleaner which if left overnight in the carboy, will require no scrubbing the following morning. It is also advised to purchase a carboy brush, preferably 24” long and bent at a 90 degree angle to reach all the corners of the carboy’s interior. There are also brushes that attach to a drill bit to ensure a faster more efficient cleaning method.

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  • Bottle Tree: Although you won’t need this when brewing your mead, you will find this useful when it comes time to bottling. Buy one that comes with a carrying handle on top. It makes drying your bottles easier and more efficient.

References:

  1. GotMead
  2. Northern Brewer

Getting Started: Bottling Equipment

Here is a link to the page of shops suggested to purchase brewing equipment.

The following list was found in Ken Schramm’s The Complete Meadmaker:

  1. Bottle Filler: This stops the flow of mead into your bottles as you fill them. They use a valve to cut off the flow, closed either by spring or gravity.

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2. Bottle Cappers: There are two different types of cappers-the Bench Capper and Lever Capper. Bench cappers sit on a bench, table, or floor, and press the cap down onto the bottle using a single handle. They are easier to use only wen the bottles are uniform in size. Lever Cappers have two or three claws that squeeze the cap down. However they do not work well on bottles with large diameter necks.

Lever Capper Lever Capper

3. Bottle Brush or Bottle Washer: All bottles should be cleaned prior use. A jet bottle washer attaches to the spigot above your sink and channels the water flow into a copper pipe with a valve. A bottle is pressed upside down over the pipe to release the jet of water. But if you have really dirty bottles then a bottle brush is more suitable.

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4. Bottles: 5 gallon batches of mead fill about 53 12oz bottles or 25 750ml Champagne-style wine bottles. American sparkling wine bottles are great to recycle as mead bottles because they will accept a crown cap and can withstand the pressures that build up in a sparkling mead. Avoid using regular wine bottles because if your fermentation is not complete it can result in glass breakage.

Sanitized bottles with some foam

Sanitized bottles with some foam

5. Bottle Caps: Crown caps are the easiest and most economical choice. They come uncrimped.

6. Siphon Pump: Used to transfer beer from kettle to carboy, or carboy to carboy.

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However I if you choice to use the corking method rather than capping, then you need the additional following:

  1. Italian Double Lever Corker

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  1. Corks: Using corks will allow some oxygen to seem into the bottle, a process that is called micro-oxygenation. This can benefit the flavor of the mead. 
Corks

Corks

Getting Started: When to Bottle?

It is very important to know when it is the appropriate time to bottle your mead. Because mead ferments slowly, it is possible to bottle mead that still ferments while in the bottle. The mead can become a “sparkling mead” and the fermentation can create enough pressure to cause the glass to break. So please be cautious when bottling.

There are many different methods to determine when your mead is done fermenting.

  • 8 weeks method: Wait a minimum of 8 weeks before you bottle your honey. This method however varies with the type of honey used, amount of honey, and the ingredients used in the recipe. Hence, I recommend other methods first before resorting to this.
  • Airlock method: Once the airlock stops bubbling, wait an additional 2-3 weeks to bottle.
  • Flashlight method: Take a flashlight and shine it through the mead. Check for the clarity of the mead-if there are any particles floating or bubbles traveling in your mead, then it is NOT ready to bottle. Also check if the top and bottom of the mead is clear. If there is still some dead yeast that has settled at the bottom, even after re-racking, then it is still NOT ready to bottle. FYI: this method is not useful for melomels because they tend to be too dark.
  • Chemical Method: Fermentation can be stopped manually through the addition of certain chemicals. Potassium sorbate can be added just before bottling to prevent any additional fermentation from occurring BUT it will not stop an already active fermentation. Potassium metabisulfite (Campden Tablets) prevents wild yeast, bacteria growth, and oxidation in your mead.
  • The Specific Gravity Method: This is the most scientific and accurate method to determine if fermentation has stopped. This requires an original gravity (OG) reading and a present gravity reading. When the specific reading falls to about 0.1 of the original reading, then it is time to bottle. Another way is to multiply the OG by the rate of the attenuation of your yeast (which is on the yeast packet) and subtract that result from the OG. That number is your target gravity (TG). Then take a current gravity reading of your mead. If that gravity reading is the same as the TG, then it is time to bottle.

References:

  1. Target/Final Gravity Question
  2. To Bottle or Not To Bottle?
  3. Mead-Lovers FAQ
  4. How to Halt the Ferment of Mead